Tuesday, May 19, 2020

The Cumberland University s History And Its New...

The Cumberland University’s history and its new partnership initiatives led me to apply for the position of President. The position of President is an outstanding opportunity. This position would allow me to share my 20 years of higher education experience successfully leading and working collaboratively with the community, institutional leadership, faculty and staff. The position of President would also allow me to contribute in a significant way to advance the institution’s mission. The Cumberland University community is in the process of identifying a new President that can build on its historical background and move the institution forward. I believe that my professional experiences and academic background would make me a promising candidate for this position. For over 20 years, I have accepted higher education administrative opportunities that would allow me to advance to the position of President. I would like to share some of my experiences successfully leading organizational strategic planning processes. My leadership of those strategic processes led to the implementation of processes that moved the organization in the direction that was appropriate for a changing economic environment. My ability to think strategically and develop collaborative relationships contributed greatly to my ability to successfully implement new organizational initiatives as well. If you consider my current position as the Academic Dean, I must think strategically to implement newShow MoreRelatedAnalysis Of Siamese Twins Joined At The Fists : Collaboration Of Public Administration And Politics2978 Words   |  12 PagesSiamese Twins Joined at the Fists: Collaboration of Public Administration and Politics David Rapp MPA5001 South University Abstract Collaboration is essential in order to create a working and lasting relationship between politics and Public Administration. This is not only true for the public sector but is possible in the private sector as well. When thinking about the bureaucracy that constantly separates the two, perhaps it is possible to bypass the bureaucracy altogether and simply put ideasRead MoreBp 7s Analysis10010 Words   |  41 Pageson the  London Stock Exchange  and is a constituent of the  FTSE 100 Index. It had a  market capitalisation  of  £81.4  billion as of 6 July 2012, the fourth-largest of any company listed on the London Stock Exchange.[11]  It has a secondary listing on the  New York Stock Exchange. BPs origins date back to the founding of the  Anglo-Persian Oil Company  in 1909, established as a subsidiary of  Burmah Oil Companyto exploit oil discoveries in Iran. In 1935, it became the  Anglo-Iranian Oil Company  and in 1954  BritishRead MoreBp 7s Analysis10000 Words   |  40 Pageson the  London Stock Exchange  and is a constituent of the  FTSE 100 Index. It had a  market capitalisation  of  £81.4  billion as of 6 July 2012, the fourth-largest of any company listed on the London Stock Exchange.[11]  It has a secondary listing on the  New York Stock Exchange. BPs origins date back to the founding of the  Anglo-Persian Oil Company  in 1909, established as a subsidiary of  Burmah Oil Companyto exploit oil discoveries in Iran. In 1935, it became the  Anglo-Iranian Oil Company  and in 1954  British

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Arthurian Legend Essay - 1498 Words

Arthurian Legend Even though the Arthur legend is hundreds of years old, our culture today is still fascinated with the idea of the Round Table and the love triangle between Arthur, Lancelot, and Guinevere. There are movies and books galore to read about the different takes on the legend of Arthur. However, it makes one wonder if our culture really understands the Arthurian legend. Especially in the movies the central idea of a literary work can be lost. Compared to Malory’s Le Morte d’Arthur have movies lost sight of what the Arthurian legend tries to teach? Le Morte d’Arthur has several different themes working within in for Hollywood to choose from. An easy one for moviemakers is the glorification of the hero. In Malory’s work†¦show more content†¦Unfortunately, the Round Table is destroyed by the above mentioned betrayal. Another theme that is also borrowed from Beowulf is the idea of the sword representing destruction. The sword in the stone is what starts a great deal of the trouble. The sword is what continues to start such trouble. Merlin warns Arthur that the sword is better off in its sheath but Arthur does not listen. Instead, the sword is used to try to solve problems and ends up creating many more. The last major theme was a common one during the time Malory was writing: courtly love. This theme is definitely something our culture has dwelled on. The idea of two lovers who cannot be together because of marriage is all too interesting for the culture that is also obsessed with soap operas. One could say that many more movies that do not even mention Arthur could be based on the Arthurian legend if they imitate courtly love. Any movie with a love triangle could be game. However, the key element of courtly love is that there must be a third party. If the love is not forbidden it just is not worth the trouble. The first movie examined for the comparison was Disney’s The Sword in the Stone. Without even watching it, one knows there are striking differences. One main reason for several differences if that the movie is a cartoon and is geared towards children. A children’s movie is not going to try toShow MoreRelatedArthurian Legend - Essay1388 Words   |  6 PagesArthurian Legend,  group  of  tales  in  several languages that concern the legendary King Arthur of the Britons, his realm, and the knights of his inner circle. The legend is one of the most enduring tales in recorded history. It first appeared in the 5th or 6th century ad and took its basic form between the 12th and 15th centuries. It continues as a popular subject in modern times. The  legend  presents  Arthur as a leader in ancient times who defeats the Saxons and other enemies. He thereby unitesRead MoreKing Arthur And The Arthurian Legend906 Words   |  4 Pagesother famous Arthurian legends were believed to be mostly truth in the 11th Century. Many people enjoyed the idea that their history once contained a time of chivalry and wonder such as the tall tales described. Indeed, some today believe the same. However, King Arthur, despite being an influential figure from the 11th century onwards, was mostly a work a fiction, his tales and legends an amalgamation of truth and fantasy with some historical basis and much exaggeration. Arthurian legend is a blendRead More Chivalry in Arthurian Legend Essay926 Words   |  4 PagesChivalry in Arthurian Legend Merriam-Websters on-line dictionary defines chivalry as the system, spirit, or customs of medieval knighthood. As Leon Gautier, author of Chivalry, defines this system and spirit of knighthood by identifying rules of chivalry, two of which are well illustrated in Lanval, TheWife of Baths Tale, and The Wedding of Sir Gawain and Dame Ragnel: Thou shalt never lie, and shall remain faithful to thy pledged word, and Thou shalt be generous, and give largessRead MoreArthurian Legends Effects on English Society1104 Words   |  5 Pagesrole did the great King Arthur play in the way English Literature is perceived? The Arthurian Legends reveal King Arthur as a chivalrous king and not as a historical figure but as a myth of mass amounts of achievements. From his search of the Holy Grail, to his perfect society in Camelot and his development of the Round Table, King Arthur’s legend displayed his heroic character. Through the many countless legends of the glorious King Arthur, England ’s society underwent a drastic change in the outlookRead More The Sword in the Stone of the Arthurian Legend Essay1773 Words   |  8 PagesThe Sword in the Stone of the Arthurian Legend King Arthur and the knights of the round table belong to a long line of books and stories of the Arthurian legend. Merlin, Lancelot, The lady of the lake, King Arthur, and Excaliber are all very important in the Arthurian legend. In this essay we will talk about King Arthur, the knights of the round table, and Merlin in the famous story, The sword in the stone.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The Sword in the stone is a book about an adopted child named wart. He is ofRead MoreThe Effects Of Victorian Culture On The Arthurian Legends2061 Words   |  9 PagesThe Effect of Victorian Culture on the Arthurian Legends The Arthurian legends stand as a mutable model of the perfect court and ruler which has been transformed by authors over the centuries to fit new cultural ideals and Tennyson’s Idylls of the King is no exception to this pattern of transformation. With his retellings of the tales of King Arthur based on earlier models of the stories, most notably the works of Sir Thomas Malory, Tennyson represents some of the most common Victorian cultural viewsRead MoreComplex Characters In The Arthurian Legend : Merlin And Taliesin767 Words   |  4 PagesMerlin and Taliesin In Arthurian legend, there are many tales of magic and adventure. One of the best aspects of the stories are the whimsical and complex characters. Often, characters’ and their identities change from version to version, creating confusion about their origin and roles in stories. Merlin, the wondrous and wise magician, and Taliesin, the inspirational historian and all-knowing bard, are some of the most versatile individuals in the stories. The mysteries of Merlin, TaliesinRead More Women in Beowulf and Arthurian Legend Essay examples1279 Words   |  6 PagesWomen in Beowulf and Arthurian Legend A common theme in the stories we have read is that glory, happiness, and success come in cycles (this theme is commonly represented as the wheel of fortune). This theme is present in the Arthurian tales, as well as in Beowulf. Each story tells a tale (or part of a tale) of a rise to glory, and the proceeding fall to disarray. The men always were the kings and warriors, but the women played different roles in the different stories. The women of BeowulfRead MoreEssay about Arthurian Legends Effects on English Society2368 Words   |  10 PagesThere is said to have legends speaking of his mythical being and also people attempted to prove that there indeed was a King Arthur. The Arthurian Legends reveal King Arthur, not as a historical figure, but as a mythical chivalrous king obtaining massive amounts of achievements. From his search for the Holy Grail to his perfect society in Camelot with his development of the Round Table, King Arthur’s legend displays his heroic character. Through the many countless legends of the glorious KingRead MoreEssay about A Comparison of Arthurian Legend in Various Stories960 Words   |  4 PagesMichelle Feddema ENG 4U Mr. Nielsen Friday November 19, 2010 A Comparison of Arthurian Legend in Various Stories Arthurian legend was a genre many writers used in Chaucer’s day. It is a story made of romances, heroism, and ballads mostly about Arthur’s chief knight Sir Gawain who was mainly a man of social and ethical virtue. Often time’s Arthurian legend is a story of a knight who fights the bad guy, learns a lesson, saves the day and get’s the girl. Although sometimes the knight may start

Strategic Information System For Business And Enterprise - Samples

Question: Discuss about the Strategic Information System For Business And Enterprise. Answer: The current organizational structure The selected organization for this report is Myer. It is an Australian based departmental store chain selling clothing line of products, accessories, footwear, house ware, books and stationary items. It is one of the largest departmental store chain based in Australia. In October 2007, Myer started its online departmental e-commerce website. It currently consists of more than 67 retail stores across Australia. The selected organization is the Myer, having the following organizational structure (Drew, McCallum and Roggenhofer 2016) Board Of Directors Paul McClintock AO Chairman Independent Non-Executive Director Richard Umbers Chief Executive Officer and Managing Director Anne Brennan Independent Non-Executive Director Chris Froggatt Independent Non-Executive Director Robert (Bob) Thorn Independent Non-Executive Director Ian Cornell Independent Non-Executive Director Dave Whittle Independent Non-Executive Director JoAnne Stephenson Independent Non-Executive Director ExecutiveManagement Team Richard Umbers Chief Executive Officer and Managing Director Grant Devonport Chief Financial Officer Karen Brewster Executive General Manager Merchandise Buying Damian Walton Executive General Manager Merchandise Planning Louise Tebbutt Executive General Manager Human Resources, Risk Safety Louise Pearson Group General Manager Retail Operations Mark Cripsey Chief Digital Data Officer Michael Scott Executive General Manager Brand and Marketing Peter Mitchley Hughes Head of Transformation Richard Amos Chief General Counsel and Company Secretary Timothy Clark Executive General Manager Property, Store Development and Services Tony Sutton Executive General Manager Stores There is several other shared service organizational structure of Myer: David Friend Managing Director Deb Pascoe Merchandise/Membership Manager Janita Friend Brand/Communications Manager Graham Crossan Creative Director Sales Producer system flowchart of Myer The flow chart described below shows that the taken sale procedure by the organization are basically to have a systematic flow of sales invoice and orders (Ward Sobek II, 2014). One of the major problems which the organizations face is not to involve a lot of people in the working of themanagement procedures. The organization should involve more people so that the workload can decrease considerably. The sale process has been comprised of eight different steps that starts with the initial contact with the client, then comes the planning of the sales procedure, approaching the sales team, orders place assessment, presentation of the shipping requested, meeting the objectives of the shipment, companys end helps in gaining commitment and finally follow up the order completion. Sales procedure assessment helps the organization to understanding the sales order prediction (Davis 2013). The sales production of Mayer group depicts the order management system that has been implemented very recently (Keune, Mayhew and Schmidt 2015). This provides significant efficiency gain and hence provides the customers better experience throughout all the channels. This company has over 30 million investments on IT that is related to the Omni-channels that may start a positive growth in the sales and may have its impact over business industry. The company retails a variety of products across men, women and children clothing, as well as electronic hardware, furniture and bedding, books, toys, food and many more. References Boulianne, E., 2014. Impact of accounting software utilization on students' knowledge acquisition: An important change in accounting education.Journal of Accounting Organizational Change,10(1), pp.22-48. Davis, A., 2013.Just enough requirements management: where software development meets marketing. Addison-Wesley. De Vries, H. and Van der Poll, H.M., 2016. The influence of Lean thinking on organisational structure and behaviour in the discrete manufacturing industry.Journal of Contemporary Management,13(1), pp.55-89. Drew, J., McCallum, B. and Roggenhofer, S., 2016.Journey to lean: making operational change stick. Springer. Kar, A., Bhattacharyya, S.D., Perez, K. and Williamson, G., Mastercard International Incorporated, 2013. Method and system for proximity fraud control. U.S. Patent Application 13/949,850. Keune, M.B., Mayhew, B.W. and Schmidt, J.J., 2015. Non-Big 4 local market leadership and its effect on competition. The Accounting Review, 91(3), pp.907-931. Seethamraju, R., 2015. Adoption of software as a service (SaaS) enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems in small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs). Information systems frontiers, 17(3), pp.475-492. Ward, A.C. and Sobek II, D.K., 2014. Lean product and process development. Lean Enterprise Institute.

Wednesday, April 22, 2020

Negative Impact of Genetically Modified Crops free essay sample

Genetic engineering or genetic modification, thus, involves the manipulation of genes within a species, and may also involve the transfer of genes—and thus the characteristics governed by those genes—from one species to another. Spontaneous alteration of genes takes place naturally and sometimes with no effect. A spontaneous alteration can lead to the development of both positive and negative characteristics. The method is not particularly good if the intention is to create specific changes. Genetically modified foods  are foods derived from  genetically modified organisms, (GMOs). Genetically modified organisms have had specific changes introduced into their DNA by  genetic engineering  techniques. Genetic engineering goals in agriculture include improving crop production and introduction of new traits, such as enhanced nutrients, temperature resistance, or the ability to grow in saltier soils. Certain characteristics may allow a genetically modified (GM) crop to be grown, harvested, or shipped at lower cost or with less Introduction damage and may allow the crop to be grown using less pesticide. We will write a custom essay sample on Negative Impact of Genetically Modified Crops or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page One of the first and still the most widespread uses of GM crop technology was the development of crops resistant to common insect pests Bacillus thuringiensis (abbreviated as Bt),which is a common soil bacterium and releases some lethal protein. In this process, first the desired genetic material is isolated from the desired plant or organism, then it is amplified and the final step involves the insertion of the genetic material into the host plant/crop to produce a genetically modified crop through different methods. Crops may yield entirely new products that are not normally derived from traditional crops—such as medicines, in some cases. The process of genetic engineering point to the potential of GM crops to improve human health and increase environmental protection. However, there are certain risks of GM crops, which may outweigh their benefits. The issues surrounding the genetic engineering of crops can be a powerful learning context for teaching ideas about the nature of science, genetics, and the use of technology.

Monday, March 16, 2020

The Chick-fil-A Essays

The Chick-fil-A Essays The Chick-fil-A Paper The Chick-fil-A Paper Chick-fil-A’s unique corporate strategy has been embedded in the company since the first store opened in 1967. The Chick-fil-A chain itself is a product of related diversification, born from a single, southern family restaurant. In 1946, founders Ben and Truett Cathy had opened a restaurant called The Dwarf House in Hapeville, Georgia. The restaurant ran successfully and after Ben was killed in a plane crash, Truett was the sole owner. Truett went on to open two more Dwarf House restaurants, where he created and served his first fried chicken filet sandwich. This became the prototype Chick-fil-A sandwich that we know today and soon began to outsell their famous hamburgers on the Dwarf House menu. In 1963, Cathy patented the name Chick-fil-A, incorporated the company and began to sell the sandwich to other restaurants. Worried that a larger chain would take his chicken sandwich idea, Truett Cathy opened the first Chick-fil-A restaurant in 1967. By 1974, there were 21 Chick-fil-A stores in Geogia and the Carolinas alone and each reflected the same four basic tenets. First of all, the company would grow not by selling franchises, but forming joint ventures with independent operators. This guarantees quality, supervision and motivation of partnership. Second, stores will be operated only in major shopping malls. Obviously this tenet was eventually abandoned, but at the time shopping malls provided the perfect atmosphere for a Chick-fil-A store. This minimized capital cost per store and maximized exposure to customers, as malls were becoming increasingly popular at this time. Third, financing would come not thru debt, but primarily from the company’s own profits. This allowed Cathy to keep ownership control and run the business in accordance with his own personal principals. This also forced the firm to be more aware of profits and prohibited the chain from growing too quickly, avoiding the risk of losing operating and quality controls. Chick-fil-A began to grow for growth’s sake, not just for profit. Lastly, and most importantly, the chief emphasis will be on the people. This refers to both the customers and the employees of Chick-fil-A. These tenets have become the core competencies of the company, placing emphasis on what is best for the company and its customers. Not venturing too far from their roots, the only diversification strategy Chick-fil-A has implemented since the opening of its first store has been the creation of Truette’s Grill. Truette’s Grill opened in 1996 as a 50’s diner themed restaurant, which features the full Chick-fil-A menu as well as items from the original Dwarf Grill restaurant. Truette’s Grill is located exclusively in Gerogia and opened its third restaurant in 2006. A huge part of their corporate strategy is the way they create the joint ventures with their independent operators. Rather than selling franchises the firm seeks out individuals, often from within the organization, to become an operator. Once approved, the operator invests $5,000 to sublease the restaurant, which Chick-fil-A has already purchased and built. Chick-fil-A provides the operators with training, technology and anything else they need. Each operator is only allowed to operate one restaurant, working full time in the restaurant they built, supervising a loyal team of employees. In 2002, more than half of the Chick-fil-A operators were making over $100,000 a year, with some making as much as $300,000. Chick-fil-A also offers licensing agreements to open a Chick-fil-A Express in places such as college campuses, hospitals and airports. Chick-fil-A has chosen not to integrate vertically or horizontally, but rather build strong relationships with different suppliers and distributors. Potential suppliers can fill out an inquiry right off of the company’s website, however the approval process is very complicated. If Chick-fil-A sees a supplier as culturally fit and financially sound, they will do follow ups such as on site inspections, audits and sample runs. If and when a supplier is approved, they will have monthly meetings with the purchasing department and continue to be tested on product quality. Although Chick-fil-A does not own any of its suppliers, they retain high standards and tight control over their supply chain. Chick-fil-A has been working closely with their main distributor, MBM, since 2000. The NC based company has over 34 locations across the US, including a location in Macon, GA that was built in 2007 specifically to better serve one of its main clients, Chick-fil-A. MBM provides Chick-fil-A with order quantity software and uses the past four weeks average order quantity to predict the next week’s order. The operator can approve the quantity or increase/decrease as much as they deem necessary. These methods of inventory control help to cut cost and reduce waste, increasing profitability. The close proximity of Chick-fil-A stores to their distributors along with their inventory control methods are valuable resources to the chain. Although these resources are not rare, inimitable and there are possible substitutes for both, they add value to the chain and contribute to its success. Without the favorable locations of the distributors, Chick-fil-A would not be able to have favorable locations of their restaurants. Just as without the technology from these types of inventory control systems, the company would not be able to minimize cost, maximize profit and reduce waste. The Cathy’s have been very smart about the financial performance of their company. By deciding from the beginning that the company would be financed primarily from their own profit rather than by borrowing, the company has been able to inherit as little debt as possible. The company expects to be debt free by 2015 and claims to have not taken on any debt since 1990. The company also has a record 43 consecutive years of annual sales increase. This strong financial performance and heavy cash flow is also one of the most valuable and necessary resources to the firm. The most valuable intangible resource to the firm is embedded deep within the roots of the company. It is their focus on the human aspect of their business that has given them a sustainable competitive advantage. By focusing on the people, both the employees and customers, Chick-fil-A has set the standards for fast food customer service. By keeping the company family owned, Cathy was able to ensure that the firm would operate in accordance with his own principals. For example, Chick-fil-A, just like the Dwarf House before it, is closed on Sundays. Though the family was ridiculed in the beginning for losing a day of business, their strong family and spiritual values insisted they reserve this day for the Lord. This was also done out of consideration for employees, giving them a day of rest to spend with their family and to worship if they choose to do so. Today, Truett Cathy’s two sons, Dan and Bubba serve as COO and Senior Vice President, respectively with their father, now 90 years old, still as CEO. By keeping the business in the family, they ensure trust and experience on the highest level. It is the capabilities of these family members that have brought Chick-fil-A where it is today. To have a board composed of family members who genuinely care about the well being of their business, who have years of experience, managerial skills, trust and trade secrets is the most valuable, inimitable, rare and non-substitutable resource. However the Cathys have worked hard to instill their principals in all their employees. While dining at a Chick-fil-A restaurant it’s impossible not to notice the manners and southern hospitality of the employees. During training, employees are instructed on how to provide excellent customer service. They are instructed to use phrases such as â€Å"My pleasure† rather than â€Å"You’re welcome† and ask â€Å"May I refresh your beverage? † rather than â€Å"Can I get you a refill? †. Aside from having good manners, employees are reminded that this is still a quick service restaurant and that speed and efficiency are of the utmost importance. Every year Chick-fil-A spends $1 million evaluating its service, giving each location a two-page report detailing how its performance compares to the chain’s top performers. This close monitoring of employees not only measures performance but also builds a team environment to become one of the highest performing restaurants. Another important human aspect to consider is the previously mentioned process of selecting a location’s operator. The capability to hire, train, and motivate employees in accordance to the founders principals is extremely valuable, rare, inimitable and non-substitutable. It is the organizational capabilities drawn from the human resources of all employees, from the executive board to behind the counter, that ensure the high levels of customer service we expect from Chick-fil-A. The firm’s human resources also reflect a high level of social complexity; it is these practices and principals that have given Chick-fil-A its strong brand name, creating a reputation with customers for quality and reliability. The human resources and capabilities of Chick-fil-A are path-dependent; they cannot easily be recreated or imitated by a competing firm, they cannot be bought but must be built over time. https://powertochange.com/discover/faith/cathy2/ encyclopedia.com/topic/Chick-fil-A_Inc.aspx

Saturday, February 29, 2020

Do universal moral principles exist If so, what are these universal Research Paper

Do universal moral principles exist If so, what are these universal morals - Research Paper Example The issue seems endless, the answer unreachable on any proven level, yet is sparks fire in the hearts of even the judges in courtrooms who must apply the law to ‘hard cases’ and stretch its definition whilst keeping in line with written provisions. Indeed, there are strong arguments both for and against the existence of universal moral standards. The issue is not one of proof; it is rather one of providing the most plausible argument. So what is a universal moral principle? It is an objective knowledge of right and wrong; a confidence in the natural goodness of human nature. Our reflective intellect possesses a direct knowledge of the qualities from which conclusions might be drawn about what these moral rules are. The biggest problem faced by this contention is answering the question: where do they come from? Are they inherent within us, or do they come from a higher being? Do we learn them over time as we grow, or were we born with the ability to access these moral principles? Aquinas makes reference to the existence of natural laws created by God, which we access by intellectual reasoning given to us by Him (Aquinas 1920, Q.2-94:2). Hare states that human logic applies to our moral assertions, allowing us to arrive at an objective standard of moral principles. Rousseau argued that we were born with a certain set of natural rights, which are then transpired into the moral respect we give each other Rousseau (17 62). If these different contentions are right, they all point to one thing; an existing set of moral principles, followed universally. So, everyone considers murder, or the taking of another’s life to be immoral. This is very plausible if one considers the law and punishment severity in law for murder; we all arguably believe in the preservation of life. However, in some societies this means killing the

Wednesday, February 12, 2020

1. What advantages or disadvantages will bring globalization to any Essay

1. What advantages or disadvantages will bring globalization to any small business To any large business To you as a citizen - Essay Example Globalisation in the 21st century is believed to have the ability to transform the political, economic and social environment of all member countries in the coming years. Thus, the paper tries to bring out the activities, both advantageous and disadvantageous, that result in general globalisation i.e. globalisation to both small and large businesses as well as citizens. This is the act of bringing together different people with different political, social and economic backgrounds and forming of one global community (Ghoshal and Bartlett, 2000). Behind the success of the process lies the economics of international trade, free market frameworks and investment. As earlier mentioned, globalisation encompasses integrating people from different settings, thus it bridges the gap between developing and developed nations as well as creates new cultural exchanges, business models, considerations and experiences within the participating nations (Ghoshal and Bartlett, 2000). The globalisation process began during World War II when Britain and USA leaders helped to establish the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank (WB) so as to encourage a capitalist world that is liberal and eliminate the Socialism and Marxism world (Nayyar 2000). Nayyar further affirms that the borrower of the loan from these organisations automatically qualified to follow the preset conditions i.e. reduce import barriers, eliminate financial backing for local-based industries, devalue their currency, put emphasis on export production as opposed to production for local consumption and reduce wages and expenditure on social wellbeing. These conditions resulted in a number of open economies developing a mechanism for integrating with other economies which led to the formation of the World Trade Organisation. Small businesses, small and medium enterprises or simply SME’s as referred to in the European Union (EU) and by other