Sunday, August 25, 2019
Islamic Symbolism and History Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 1
Islamic Symbolism and History - Essay Example It is still contested when the emergence of Islam in the modern period started. Three historical episodes occurred in the 15th century and had an enduring impact on Islamic foundation in the modern age (Esposito, 1999): (1) the conquest of Jerusalem by Crusaders, (2) expulsion of Muslims from Spain in 1492, and (3) Islamic revolution in Iran. Under the regime of the Ottoman, approximately from the mid-15th century to the conclusion of the First World War, Islam turned into the formal religion of the Ottoman rule (Esposito, 1999). Nevertheless, because of the imperialistic thrust of European powers, Ottoman supremacy was defined in the 19th century. The Ottoman state turned to a restructuring agenda, called Tanzimat, to face this challenge (Ahmed, 2002). Under the Tanzimat, according to Esposito (1999), the Ottoman Empire modernized its economy, commerce, and military. Turkish patriotism emerged at the end of Tanzimat which became eventually an alarming dispute to the Ottoman stateÃ¢â ¬â¢s Islamic foundations. In 1924, Kemal Ataturk formed the Turkish Republic which tried to restrict the presence of Islam in politics and public affairs while practicing a Westernized political and cultural rule (Ahmed, 2002). Three main phenomena were existing in the Islamic domain in the 19th century, namely, Islamic Reform, patriotism, and Imperialism (Esposito, 1999). According to Esposito (1999), patriotism in the Islamic world in the modern period emerged as a reaction to the dominance of European powers and the weakening of Islam.